The PEMBRO-RT phase II randomized trial and the evolution of therapy for metastatic non-small cell lung cancer: a historical perspective

Steven E. Schild


Lung cancer kills more individuals than any other malignancy. In the United States alone, it is estimated that 142,670 patients with die of this disease during 2019 (1). In 1995, Hellman and Weichselbaum proposed the existence of “a clinically significant state of disease termed oligometastases that was in between purely localized and widely metastatic.” (2). This term was to be used to describe patients with “metastases to a single or a limited number of organs”.