The use of allogenic and autologous tissue to treat aortic valve endocarditis

Francesco Nappi, Sanjeet Singh Avtaar Singh, Mario Lusini, Antonio Nenna, Ivancarmine Gambardella, Massimo Chello


The surgical treatment of aortic valve endocarditis (AVE) is generally performed using conventional mechanical or biological xenograft prosthesis, with limited use of aortic homograft (Ao-Homo) or pulmonary autograft (PA). Clinical evidence has demonstrated a clear contradiction between the proven benefits of Ao-Homo and PA in the context of infection and the very limited use of allogenic or autologous tissue in everyday clinical practice. This review aims to summarize the most recent and relevant literature in order to foster the scientific debate on the use of the use of allogenic and autologous tissue to treat AVE. The decisional process of the Heart Team should also include the preferences of the patient, his/her family, the general cardiologist or primary care physician. The use of allogenic or autologous valve substitute is beneficial if there is a high risk of recurrence of infection, avoiding extensive adhesiolysis and debridement of synthetic material. In any case, those procedures should be performed by highly trained centers to optimize outcomes.