The effects of citrate dialysate in hemodialysis on polymorphonuclear elastase interaction with tissue factor and its inhibitor

Jiameng Li, Si Sun, Mei Han, Liya Wang, Ruoxi Liao, Yuqin Xiong, Yupei Li, Heng Jiang, Zheng Qin, Anil Maharjan, Mario Cozzolino, Alexander Zarbock, Baihai Su


Background: This study aimed to investigate whether hemodialysis (HD) affects tissue factor (TF), tissue factor pathway inhibitor (TFPI), and polymorphonuclear elastase (PMNE) in endstage renal disease (ESRD) patients when eliminating the effects of heparin. Also, to explore the interaction of TF, TFPI, and PMNE throughout a single HD session.
Methods: We enrolled 57 ESRD patients who had undergone hemodialysis for >3 months as an experimental group. Plasma levels of TF, TFPI and PMNE were measured by ELISA in 24 ERSD patients on intermittent HD using low-molecular-weight heparin (LMWH) as anticoagulation (LMWH group) and 33 ESRD patients using citrate as anticoagulation (citrate group) at the start and at 1, 2 and 5 h of the HD session. Meanwhile,28 ESRD patients not on dialysis were enrolled as a control group and fasting venous blood samples were taken in the morning.
Results: Compared with the control group, the plasma TFPI levels of the LMWH group and the citrate group were significantly higher (P=0.000, P=0.002, respectively) under baseline conditions as well as the plasma PMNE levels (P=0.001, P=0.02, respectively), whereas TF showed no difference (P=0.186). During HD with citrate, plasma TFPI decreased slightly (P=0.012) and PMNE increased significantly (P=0.008) at 1 h. The plasma TFPI levels of the citrate group correlate with PMNE at 2 and 5 h (P=0.001, P=0.008, respectively).
Conclusions: ESRD patients on HD have significantly higher TFPI and PMNE levels compared to patients not on HD under baseline conditions, while TF levels were similar between the three groups. TFPI and PMNE are differently regulated, but the plasma levels correlated during HD in the citrate group. It might be possible that PMNE plays a role in anticoagulative activity through TFPI.