Article Abstract

Transcriptomic depression of immunological synapse as a signature of ventilator-associated pneumonia

Authors: Raquel Almansa, Leonor Nogales, Marta Martín-Fernández, Montse Batlle, Esther Villareal, Lucia Rico, Alicia Ortega, Guillermo López-Campos, David Andaluz-Ojeda, Paula Ramírez, Lorenzo Socias, Luis Tamayo, Jordi Vallés, Jesús F. Bermejo-Martín, Ignacio Martín-Loeches


Background: Ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) is one of the most commonly encountered intensive care unit (ICU) acquired infections worldwide. The objective of the study was to identify the immune alteration occurring in patients suffering from VAP at the transcriptomic level and explore its potential use for clinical diagnoses of this disease.
Methods: We performed a prospective observational study in five medical ICUs. Immunological gene expression profiles in the blood of VAP patients were compared with those of controls by using whole transcriptome microarrays and droplet digital polymerase chain reaction (ddPCR) in the first 24 hours following diagnosis.
Results: VAP patients showed significantly lower expression levels of HLA-DOA, HLA-DMA, HLA-DMB, ICOS, ICOSLG, IL2RA, CD1, CD3, CD28 and CD40LG. The molecules coded by these genes participate of the immunological synapse. CD1C, CD40LG and ICOS showed the highest values of area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUROC) with a good balance between sensibility and specificity.
Conclusions: Patients with VAP show a transcriptomic depression of genes participating of the immunological synapse. It takes a commonplace event, namely VAP, and highlights a quite significant underlying immune suppressive state. In effect this small study will change how we regard VAP, and proposes that we regard it as an infection in an immune compromised host, and that immunity has a central role for ICU acquired infections. This may in time change clinical practice, as it has profound implications for the role of protocolised care, or bundles, in the prevention of VAP. Quantifying the expression in blood of this genes using ddPCR could be a useful approach for the diagnosis of VAP.