Outcomes following transcatheter aortic valve replacement in patients with native aortic valve regurgitation
Due to the absence of annular calcification for device anchoring, it is presumed that transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR) is not suitable for the treatment of native aortic valve regurgitation (NAVR) resulting in very limited data and experience concerning its safety and efficacy. We sought to review published data on the safety and efficacy of TAVR in high-risk patients with NAVR. Studies including case reports, case series and original articles published between 2002 and 2016 on TAVR in patients with NAVR were identified with a systematic electronic search using the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) statement. Only studies reporting data on demographic and procedural characteristics, management and follow up outcomes were analyzed. A total of 30 publications describing 182 patients were identified. Most patients (54%) were men, with a mean age of 70.1±2.6 years, mean logistic European System for Cardiac Operative Risk Evaluation score (EuroSCORE) of 21.8%±4.5% and mean Society of Thoracic Surgeons (STS) score of 8%±1.8% for mortality. The majority (87%) of patients had severe NAVR with no valvular calcification. TAVR was mostly performed through the femoral (58.8%) and apical (33.1%) approach. Device success, defined by VARC-2, was achieved in 86.3% of our study population. A second valve was required in 17 patients (9.3%) during the index procedure for residual aortic regurgitation or malposition. Post-procedure aortic regurgitation of grade 1 or less was present in 80 patients (81%). Pacemaker implantation was required post procedure in 17 patients (9.3%). The 30-day and 1-year mortality was 11.9% and 16.2%, respectively. TAVR is associated with favorable pacemaker implantation and 1-year mortality rates with a high 30-day mortality among selected patients with NAVR.