Vol 9, No 5 (March 2021): Annals of Translational Medicine

Original Article

SMURF1-mediated ubiquitylation of SHP-1 promotes cell proliferation and invasion of endometrial stromal cells in endometriosis
Yunmeng Bian, Li Yuan, Xiaoqian Yang, Lichun Weng, Yanli Zhang, He Bai, Jinhong Chen
RUNX2 promotes vascular injury repair by activating miR-23a and inhibiting TGFBR2
Kai Wu, Zhou Cai, Bo Liu, Yu Hu, Pu Yang
Homologous recombination repair gene mutations show no survival benefits in Chinese high-grade serous ovarian cancer patients
Zheng Feng, Hao Wen, Xingzhu Ju, Rui Bi, Xiaojun Chen, Wentao Yang, Xiaohua Wu
Interleukin-28A maintains the intestinal epithelial barrier function through regulation of claudin-1
Liangzi Li, Chao Zhou, Teming Li, Weidong Xiao, Min Yu, Hua Yang
Lactobacillus delbrueckii alleviates depression-like behavior through inhibiting toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) signaling in mice
Xiangjie Qiu, Guojun Wu, Lili Wang, Yurong Tan, Zhi Song
A novel metabolic gene signature-based nomogram to predict overall survival in breast cancer
Xi Sun, Zhi-Rui Zhou, Yan Fang, Shuning Ding, Shuangshuang Lu, Zheng Wang, Hui Wang, Xiaosong Chen, Kunwei Shen
Cardiac indicator CK-MB might be a predictive marker for severity and organ failure development of acute pancreatitis
Bing Zhao, Silei Sun, Yihui Wang, Huihui Zhu, Tongtian Ni, Xing Qi, Lili Xu, Yuming Wang, Yi Yao, Li Ma, Ying Chen, Jun Huang, Weijun Zhou, Zhitao Yang, Huiqiu Sheng, Hongping Qu, Erzhen Chen, Jian Li, Enqiang Mao
In-hospital mortality of liver transplantation and risk factors: a single-center experience
Xing-Mao Zhang, Hua Fan, Qiao Wu, Xin-Xue Zhang, Ren Lang, Qiang He
Assessing the risk of rapid fibroid growth in patients with asymptomatic solitary uterine myoma using a multivariate prediction model
Qingxiu Li, Jiehui Zhong, Dongyi Yi, Genqiang Deng, Zezhen Liu, Wei Wang
Personality differences in brain network mechanisms for placebo analgesia and nocebo hyperalgesia in experimental pain: a functional magnetic resonance imaging study
Yu Shi, Yaping Wang, Yanyan Zeng, Hongrui Zhan, Shimin Huang, Guiyuan Cai, Jianming Yang, Wen Wu
Lung cancers and pulmonary nodules detected by computed tomography scan: a population-level analysis of screening cohorts
Caichen Li, Jing Liao, Bo Cheng, Jianfu Li, Hengrui Liang, Yu Jiang, Zixuan Su, Shan Xiong, Feng Zhu, Yi Zhao, Ran Zhong, Feng Li, Jianxing He, Wenhua Liang
Comparison of posterior corneal elevation after SMILE and FS-LASIK in correcting myopia over −9.0 diopters
Yu Zhao, Yishan Qian, Xun Chen, Xueyi Zhou, Bing Qin, Xingtao Zhou
An artificial intelligence platform for the diagnosis and surgical planning of strabismus using corneal light-reflection photos
Keli Mao, Yahan Yang, Chong Guo, Yi Zhu, Chuan Chen, Jingchang Chen, Li Liu, Lifei Chen, Zijun Mo, Bingsen Lin, Xinliang Zhang, Sijin Li, Xiaoming Lin, Haotian Lin
A novel and efficient surgical knotting technique for high-tension closures
Yongyun Chang, Degang Yu, Liao Wang, Jingwei Zhang, Mengning Yan, Huiwu Li, Yuanqing Mao, Zanjing Zhai
Decreased serum fibroblast growth factor 19 level is a risk factor for type 1 diabetes
Jingyi Hu, Yingxin Tang, Hui Liu, Yanhua Li, Xia Li, Gan Huang, Yang Xiao, Zhiguang Zhou
The prognostic significance of tumor deposits in patients with head and neck squamous cell carcinomas
Shuting Yu, Yingying Zhu, Xiaohua Shi, Wenwen Diao, Xiaoli Zhu, Zhiqiang Gao, Xingming Chen
Developing and validating a novel nomogram used a competing-risks model for predicting the prognosis of primary fallopian tube carcinoma: a retrospective study based on the SEER database
Chengzhuo Li, Junyuan Li, Qiao Huang, Xiaojie Feng, Fanfan Zhao, Fengshuo Xu, Didi Han, Jun Lyu
Identification of hub genes and compounds controlling ovarian cancer stem cell characteristics via stemness indices analysis
Zhi Wang, Di Wu, Yu Xia, Bin Yang, Tao Xu
The role of magnification correction in macular vessel density assessment: a contralateral eye study in anisometropia patients
Dan Fu, Meiyan Li, Li Zeng, Jianmin Shang, Zhiqiang Yu, Xingtao Zhou
Protective effects and molecular mechanisms of Achyranthes bidentata polypeptide k on Schwann cells
Meiyuan Li, Ye Zhu, Leili Tang, Hua Xu, Jingfei Zhong, Wenqiang Peng, Ying Yuan, Xiaosong Gu, Hongkui Wang
A multi-center survey on the postpartum mental health of mothers and attachment to their neonates during COVID-19 in Hubei Province of China
Sicong Peng, Yi Zhang, Hongyan Liu, Xiaona Huang, Douglas James Noble, Lixia Yang, Wei Lu, Yahui Luo, Huaping Zhu, Li Cao, Chunhua Liu, Yang Chen, Pei Zhang, Shiwen Xia, Anuradha Narayan
Rosavin suppresses osteoclastogenesis in vivo and in vitro by blocking the nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells (NF-κB) and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling pathways
Wenhao Zhang, Weijie Zhang, Liang Huo, Ying Chai, Zhiyang Liu, Zhenhu Ren, Chuangqi Yu
Inhibitory Smads suppress pancreatic stellate cell activation through negative feedback in chronic pancreatitis
Hao Lin, Beibei Dong, Liang Qi, Yingxiang Wei, Yusha Zhang, Xiaotian Cai, Qi Zhang, Jia Li, Ling Li
Transient perioperative inflammation following lung transplantation and major thoracic surgery with elective extracorporeal support: a prospective observational study
Cecilia Veraar, Stefan Schwarz, Jürgen Thanner, Martin Direder, Panja M. Boehm, Leopold Harnoncourt, Joachim Ortmayr, Clarence Veraar, Julia Mascherbauer, Walter Klepetko, Martin Dworschak, Hendrik J. Ankersmit, Bernhard Moser
The difference between fasting and non-fasting lipid measurements is not related to statin treatment
Ming-Ming Liu, Jia Peng, Ye-Xuan Cao, Yuan-Lin Guo, Na-Qiong Wu, Cheng-Gang Zhu, Ying Gao, Jian-Jun Li
Progesterone protocol versus gonadotropin-releasing hormone antagonist protocol in women with polycystic ovarian syndrome undergoing in vitro fertilization treatments with frozen-thawed embryo transfer: a prospective randomized controlled trial
Xiuxian Zhu, Hongjuan Ye, Jing Ye, Yonglun Fu
Hot spots and trends in knee revision research since the 21st century: a bibliometric analysis
Kelei Zhai, Weifeng Ma, Tao Huang
Muscle damage in response to a single bout of high intensity concentric exercise in patients with Pompe disease
Márk Váczi, Szilvia Anett Nagy, Tamás Kőszegi, Bernadette Misovics, Edina Szabó, Éva Müller, Gábor Perlaki, Gergely Orsi, József Pál, Péter Bogner, Zsolt Illes
Pulmonary tuberculosis as a risk factor for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: a systematic review and meta-analysis
Huanhuan Fan, Fan Wu, Jing Liu, Weifeng Zeng, Silan Zheng, Heshen Tian, Haiqing Li, Huajing Yang, Zihui Wang, Zhishan Deng, Jieqi Peng, Youlan Zheng, Shan Xiao, Guoping Hu, Yumin Zhou, Pixin Ran
Prognostic values of treatment modalities on head and neck mucosal melanomas in elderly patients: a population-based analysis
Enni Chen, Jiawei Wu, Zhiqiao Liu, Shanshan Yang, Jiali Wu, Puyun Ouyang, Fangyun Xie
Supercapsular percutaneously-assisted total hip (SuperPath) versus mini-incision posterolateral total hip arthroplasty for hip osteoarthritis: a prospective randomized controlled trial
Weikun Meng, Liang Gao, Zhong Huang, Haoyang Wang, Duan Wang, Zeyu Luo, Yang Bai, Guanglin Wang, Zongke Zhou
Biomarkers and key pathways in atrial fibrillation associated with mitral valve disease identified by multi-omics study
Ming-Yang Li, Huan-Xin Chen, Hai-Tao Hou, Jun Wang, Xiao-Cheng Liu, Qin Yang, Guo-Wei He
Exosome-derived miR-196b-5p facilitates intercellular interaction in infantile hemangioma via down-regulating CDKN1B
Qi-Zhang Wang, Ze-Liang Zhao, Chao Liu, Jia-Wei Zheng
Associations of hand washing frequency with the incidence of illness: a systematic review and meta-analysis
Yangqin Xun, Qingxia Shi, Nan Yang, Nan Yang, Yan Li, Wenwen Si, Qianling Shi, Zijun Wang, Xia Liu, Xuan Yu, Qi Zhou, Minyan Yang, Yaolong Chen
Association of genetic variants of TMEM135 and PEX5 in the peroxisome pathway with cutaneous melanoma-specific survival
Haijiao Wang, Hongliang Liu, Wei Dai, Sheng Luo, Christopher I. Amos, Jeffrey E. Lee, Xin Li, Ying Yue, Hongmei Nan, Qingyi Wei
Distinct prognostic values of programmed death-ligand 1 and programmed cell death protein 1 in lung adenocarcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma patients
Shuo Wang, Xiujuan Qu, Zhi Li, Xiaofang Che, Lili Cao, Xianghong Yang, Xuejun Hu, Ling Xu, Kezuo Hou, Yibo Fan, Ti Wen, Yunpeng Liu
The diagnostic performance of the Gynecologic Imaging Reporting and Data System (GI-RADS) in adnexal masses
Wen Guo, Xiuhe Zou, Hanyue Xu, Tao Zhang, Yunuo Zhao, Lu Gao, Wenyue Duan, Xuelei Ma, Ling Zhang
Dexmedetomidine exhibits antiarrhythmic effects on human-induced pluripotent stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes through a Na/Ca channel-mediated mechanism
Li Yang, Yiqi Gong, Yao Tan, Lei Wu, Nevin Witman, Jijian Zheng, Jun Zhang, Wei Fu, Wei Wang
The clinicopathological features of drug-induced acute kidney injury—a single-center retrospective analysis
Yu Cui, Yi Yang, Wenhua Lei, Xiabing Lang, Jianghua Chen
Genetically predicted bipolar disorder is causally associated with an increased risk of breast cancer: a two-sample Mendelian randomization analysis
Haoxin Peng, Xiangrong Wu, Fan Ge, Zhenyu Huo, Yaokai Wen, Caichen Li, Jinsheng Lin, Hengrui Liang, Ran Zhong, Jun Liu, Runchen Wang, Jianxing He, Wenhua Liang
Development and validation of a nomogram combining hematological and imaging features for preoperative prediction of microvascular invasion in hepatocellular carcinoma patients
Qiang Zhou, Chenhao Zhou, Yirui Yin, Wanyong Chen, Chunxiao Liu, Manar Atyah, Jialei Weng, Yinghao Shen, Yong Yi, Ning Ren
Non-intubated video-assisted thoracic surgery for subxiphoid anterior mediastinal tumor resection
Yong Mao, Hengrui Liang, Shiqi Deng, Yuan Qiu, Yanran Zhou, Hanzhang Chen, Long Jiang, Jianxing He
Umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cells enhance the therapeutic effect of imipenem by regulating myeloid-derived suppressor cells in septic mice
Xianming Long, Xiaojing Li, Tao Li, Qing Yan, Lihui Wen, Xixi Yang, Hui Li, Lingyun Sun
Electrophysiological mapping and assessment of facial nerve functioning during acoustic neuroma operations
Xiaoyu Li, Yuhai Bao, Jiantao Liang, Ge Chen, Hongchuan Guo, Mingchu Li
A potentially effective drug for patients with recurrent glioma: sermorelin
Yuanhao Chang, Ruoyu Huang, You Zhai, Lijie Huang, Yuemei Feng, Di Wang, Ruichao Chai, Wei Zhang, Huimin Hu
Nomogram for predicting the survival rate of primary pulmonary mucoepidermoid carcinoma patients: a retrospective study based on SEER database
Guo Lin, Hengrui Liang, Wei Wang, Jun Liu, Jianfu Li, Wenhua Liang, Jianxing He
Overexpression of fibrinogen-like protein 2 alleviates acute rejection in rat models of liver transplantation
Xinxue Zhang, Jun Ma, Han Li, Lin Zhou, Zhe Liu, Shaocheng Lyu, Qiang He, Xianliang Li
A clinical diagnostic model based on an eXtreme Gradient Boosting algorithm to distinguish type 1 diabetes
Xiaohan Tang, Rui Tang, Xingzhi Sun, Xiang Yan, Gan Huang, Houde Zhou, Guotong Xie, Xia Li, Zhiguang Zhou
PIK3CA mutation confers resistance to chemotherapy in triple-negative breast cancer by inhibiting apoptosis and activating the PI3K/AKT/mTOR signaling pathway
Huayu Hu, Junyong Zhu, Yuting Zhong, Rui Geng, Yashuang Ji, Qingyu Guan, Chenyan Hong, Yufan Wei, Ningning Min, Aiying Qi, Yanjun Zhang, Xiru Li
Feasibility of a second-generation colon capsule in visualization of the upper gastrointestinal tract
Gangping Li, Yu Jin, Tao Bai, Wei Qian, Xiaoping Xie, Xiaohua Hou
Differences in the clinicopathological characteristics of pure and mixed invasive micropapillary breast carcinomas from eastern China
Rong Wang, Nani Li, Xiao-Jia Wang, Tianhui Chen, Hong Zhang, Yongran Cheng, Wenyong Sun, Zhanhong Chen, Yabing Zheng, Analyn Lizaso, Songan Chen, Wen-Ming Cao
Melatonin alleviates lipopolysaccharide-induced myocardial injury by inhibiting inflammation and pyroptosis in cardiomyocytes
Ze-Da-Zhong Su, Xue-Biao Wei, Yan-Bin Fu, Jia Xu, Zhong-Hua Wang, Yu Wang, Jian-Feng Cao, Jie-Leng Huang, Dan-Qing Yu
The relationship between the clearance of HBsAg and the remodeling of B cell subsets in CHB patients treated with Peg-IFN-α
Ze-Qian Wu, Lei Tan, Wei-Qiang Gan, Zhi-Shuo Mo, Da-Biao Chen, Pei-Pei Wang, Qi-Yi Zhao, Dong-Ying Xie, Zhi-Liang Gao
Immunoglobulin (Ig) G4-related sclerosing cholangitis in patients resected for presumed perihilar cholangiocarcinoma: a 10-year experience
Lei Feng, Zhen You, Dongyang Ma, Lvjun Yan, Hua Cheng, Junhe Gou, Liping Chen
Prolonged balloon occlusion of the lower abdominal aorta during pelvic or sacral tumor resection
Yi Luo, Mingyan Jiang, Jianguo Fang, Li Min, Yong Zhou, Fan Tang, Minxun Lu, Yitian Wang, Hong Duan, Chongqi Tu
Pancreatic stellate cells regulate branched-chain amino acid metabolism in pancreatic cancer
Wenna Jiang, Lu Qiao, Yawei Han, Aimin Zhang, Haohua An, Jiawei Xiao, Li Ren
Mitochondrial dysfunction resulting from the down-regulation of bone morphogenetic protein 5 may cause microtia
Yin-Yi Qiu, Hua-Song Zhang, Yuan Tang, Fei-Yi Liu, Jia-Qi Pang, Xue-Yuan Zhang, Hao Xiong, Yu-Shuang Liang, Hui-Ying Zhao, Sui-Jun Chen

Editorial on Rheumatologic Skin Disease1

Why rheumatologic skin disease?
Richard D. Sontheimer, M. Kari Connolly, David F. Fiorentino, Victoria P. Werth

Review Article on Rheumatologic Skin Disease1

Role of biomarkers in the diagnosis and prognosis of patients with cutaneous lupus erythematosus
Jane L. Zhu, Samantha M. Black, Benjamin F. Chong
Evaluating safety and compatibility of anti-tumor necrosis factor therapy in patients with connective tissue disorders
Jordan T. Said, Scott A. Elman, Joseph F. Merola
The CLASI, a validated tool for the evaluation of skin disease in lupus erythematosus: a narrative review
Srita Chakka, Rebecca L. Krain, Josef Symon S. Concha, Benjamin F. Chong, Joseph F. Merola, Victoria P. Werth
Dermatomyositis and malignancy: should all patients with dermatomyositis undergo malignancy screening?
Urmi Khanna, Fabrizio Galimberti, Yumeng Li, Anthony P. Fernandez
Dermatomyositis autoantibodies: how can we maximize utility?
Luqman Mushila Hodgkinson, Tiffany Tingshuen Wu, David Franklin Fiorentino
Environmental triggers of dermatomyositis: a narrative review
Christina E. Bax, Spandana Maddukuri, Adarsh Ravishankar, Lisa Pappas-Taffer, Victoria P. Werth
Polishing the crystal ball: mining multi-omics data in dermatomyositis
Rochelle L. Castillo, Alisa N. Femia
Covert clues: the non-hallmark cutaneous manifestations of dermatomyositis
Rochelle L. Castillo, Alisa N. Femia
Morphea: progress to date and the road ahead
Laila Abbas, Adrienne Joseph, Elaine Kunzler, Heidi T. Jacobe
Systemic sclerosis (scleroderma): remaining challenges
Mary Karin Connolly
Advances in cutaneous vasculitis research and clinical care
Avrom Caplan, Robert G. Micheletti
Human cutaneous B cells: what do we really know?
Irina Lerman, Drew C. Mitchell, Christopher T. Richardson
Pruritus in autoimmune connective tissue diseases
Hee Joo Kim

Abstract on Rheumatologic Skin Disease1

AB001. Understanding transcriptional connections of chronic cutaneous lupus erythematosus between humans and animal models
Frane Banovic, Amanda Blubaugh, Tara Denley, Robert M. Gogal
AB002. Quality of life is inversely related to income in patients with cutaneous lupus
Smriti Prasad, Linda Hynan, Mary-Margaret Chren, Benjamin Chong
AB003. Increased CD69+ tissue-resident memory T cells and STAT3 expression in cutaneous lupus erythematosus patients recalcitrant to antimalarials
Majid Zeidi, Kristen L. Chen, Krisha Desai, Hee Joo Kim, Srita Chakka, Rachel Lim, Victoria P. Werth
AB004. Evaluating differences in meaningful change in disease activity between different races and clinical subtypes affected by cutaneous lupus erythematosus
Srita Chakka, Rebecca Krain, Sarah Ahmed, Josef Symon S. Concha, Victoria P. Werth
AB005. Assessing meaningful changes in disease activity as clinical trial clinical efficacy measures for cutaneous lupus erythematosus
Srita Chakka, Rebecca Krain, Sarah Ahmed, Josef Symon S. Concha, Rui Feng, Victoria P. Werth
AB006. A modular analysis approach to studying gene expression in cutaneous lupus erythematosus
Jane Zhu, Ly Tran, Frank Zheng, Judith James, Joel Guthridge, Benjamin Chong
AB007. Worse skin disease severity may distinguish patients who progress from cutaneous lupus erythematous to systemic lupus erythematous
Frances Walocko, Samantha Black, Scott Anderson, Xilong Li, Beverley Adams-Huet, Benjamin Chong
AB008. Utility of repeat latent tuberculosis testing in patients with immune-mediated diseases taking biologics
Urmi Khanna, Ariana Ellis, Josh Gallop, Abdulaziz Galadari, Jeffery Hu, Anthony P. Fernandez
AB009. Successful treatment of severe systemic lupus erythematosus and psoriasis with IL-17A inhibition
Danielle M. Robinett, Ilana Rosman, Louis Dehner, Deepali Sen, Heather Jones
AB010. Keloidal scleroderma with isolated intertriginous involvement
Vijay Balakrishnan, Lauren V. Graham, Lauren C. S. Kole
AB011. A Gottron’s papule mimicker: an unusual presentation of porokeratosis plantaris palmaris et disseminata
Elizabeth Schoenberg, Byron Ho, Linglei Ma, Inbal Sander
AB012. Clinical and demographic features of morphea patients with mucocutaneous involvement: a cross sectional study from the morphea of adults and children (MAC cohort)
Smriti Prasad, Samantha Black, Shivani Sharma, Heidi Jacobe
AB013. CXCL4-DNA immune complexes drive inflammation in systemic sclerosis by amplifying TLR9-mediated interferon-α production
Ernest Y. Lee, Roberto Lande, Carlo Chizzolini, Gerard C. L. Wong, Loredana Frasca
AB014. Developing classification criteria for skin-predominant dermatomyositis: assessing the methodology of the prospective validation study
Josef Symon S. Concha, Joseph F. Merola, David Fiorentino, Jan Peter Dutz, Mark Goodfield, Filippa Nyberg, Beatrix Volc-Platzer, Manubo Fujimoto, Chia Chun Ang, Victoria P. Werth
AB015. Skin disease activity and autoantibody phenotype are major determinants of blood interferon signatures in dermatomyositis
Mika Tabata, Kavita Sarin, Nareh Marukian, Karen Page, Christine Huard, Shanrong Zhao, Donald Bennett, Jillian Johnson, Kristen Johnson, David Fiorentino
AB016. A double-blind, placebo-controlled, phase 2 trial of a novel toll-like receptor 7/8/9 antagonist (IMO-8400) in dermatomyositis
Yoo Jung Kim, Elena Schiopu, Katalin Dankó, Tahseen Mozaffar, Srinivas Chunduru, Kirstin Lees, Namita Goyal, Jeffrey Sarazin, David F. Fiorentino, Kavita Y. Sarin
AB017. Increased dendritic cells and IFN-beta and MxA protein expression in spongiotic dermatitis differentiates dermatomyositis from eczema
Majid Zeidi, Kristen L. Chen, Basil Patel, Rachel Lim, Victoria P. Werth
AB018. Myeloid dendritic cells (mDCs) are major producers of interferon-beta in dermatomyositis and increased numbers of mDCs are found in hydroxychloroquine nonresponders
Kristen L. Chen, Majid Zeidi, Maria Wysocka, Nithin Reddy, Arvin Jadoo, Muhammad M. Bashir, Sarah Ahmed, Basil Patel, Kevin K. Zhang, Barbara White, Victoria P. Werth
AB019. Response to tofacitinib in a case of refractory TIF-1 positive amyopathic dermatomyositis with arthritis
Sion Ward Jasmine, Deepali Sen, Heather Anna Jones
AB020. A case report on cutaneous necrotizing vasculitis treated with colchicine in a Filipino adult male
Luisa Marie S. Cruz, Rogelio G. Balagat, Martha B. Tapales
AB021. Comparing the performance of two interferon-gamma release assays in autoimmune skin disease patients: a prospective study
Rebecca L. Krain, Rebecca G. Gaffney, Emily R. Keyes, Rui Feng, Victoria P. Werth
AB022. Biologics and vaccination: relationship of influenza, pneumonia and zoster
Deep Patel, Steven Maczuga, Matthew Helm, Galen Foulke
AB023. An atypical clinical presentation of alopecia in two patients with systemic lupus erythematosus
Irina Lerman, Ritesh Agnihothri, Glynis A. Scott, Christopher T. Richardson
AB024. A case of bullous systemic lupus erythematosus confined to the oral mucosa
Jennifer Strunck, Lynne Morrison, Teri Greiling
AB025. Acute arthritis with dermatitis: a case of multicentric reticulohistiocytosis
Omid Zahedi Niaki, Nicole Gunesekera, Christine Lian, Ruth Ann Vleugels, Deborah A. Scott

Disclosure:

1. The series “Rheumatologic Skin Disease” was commissioned by the editorial office, Annals of Translational Medicine without any sponsorship or funding. Richard D. Sontheimer, M. Kari Connolly, David Fiorentino and Dr. Victoria Werth served as the unpaid Guest Editors for the series.