Intensive management of severe acute pancreatitis
To investigate an optimal management bundle to improve the survival rate of severe acute pancreatitis (SAP). We constructed a treatment bundle based on our clinical investigation, literature, and empirical practice. Intensive management during the acute response stage and infection stage comprised eight main issues: etiology, diagnosis, fluid resuscitation, support of organ function, abdominal compartment syndrome (ACS), enteral nutrition, intestinal function, and antibiotics. The intensive management plan included a time-dependent plan for the eight main issues and goal-directed therapy. The plan must be started within the prescribed time (time-dependent endeavors) and must involve the right strategies, right sequence, and right ward for each individual. Effective goal-directed therapy and essential treatment measures must be performed within a specified period of time, and treatment efficacy should be regularly assessed. In 2010, intensive management was initiated in China. Intensive management has significant effects on SAP. This strategy was adopted by 36 hospitals in China, resulting in significant improvements in prognoses. Some criteria of intensive management were adopted by the International Association of Pancreatology (IAP)/American Pancreatic Association Working Group Acute Pancreatitis Guidelines in 2013. Intensive management is an important efficacy-based treatment strategy that can significantly ameliorate prognoses.