Review Article

Cerebral protection devices for transcatheter aortic valve replacement

Hector Cubero-Gallego, Isaac Pascual, José Rozado, Ana Ayesta, Daniel Hernandez-Vaquero, Rocio Diaz, Alberto Alperi, Pablo Avanzas, Cesar Moris


Aortic stenosis is the most prevalent primary valve disease in developed countries. Its prevalence is increasing due to population aging. Transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR) is a sterling therapy for symptomatic patients with severe aortic stenosis and high or intermediate surgery risk. The number of procedures has increased exponentially expanding to younger and lower risk patients. Despite new-generation TAVR devices and enhanced operator skills, cerebrovascular events (CVEs) carry on being one of the most severe complications, increasing morbi-mortality. CVE might be under reported because there are few studies with rigorous neurological clinical assessment. Several imaging studies show most of CVE after TAVR has a probable embolic etiology. The risk of CVE ranges from 2.7% to 5.5% at 30 days. As TAVR expands to younger and lower risk patients, the prevention of stroke plays an increasingly important role. Cerebral protection devices (CPD) were designed to reduce the risk of CVE during TAVR. This review describes the scientific evidence on CVE after TAVR and summarizes the performance and results of the main CPDs.