Detection and significance of glial fibrillary acidic protein antibody in autoimmune astocytopathy and related diseases

Jiehong Huang, Wenyao Huang, Ruisi Zhou, Wenhui Lin, Ting Chen, Youming Long


Autoimmune glial fibrillary acidic protein astrocytopathy (GFAP-A) is an antibody-related astrocytic disease for which a specific GFAP antibody serves as a biological marker. Indeed, cerebral spinal fluid positive and/or seropositivity for GFAP is an important basis for its diagnosis. However, because patients with autoimmune encephalitis or demyelinating diseases can have a similar antibody profile, termed overlapping autoimmune syndrome, it remains a challenge for clinicians to diagnose and suitably classify autoimmune GFAP-A. To further understand the significance of GFAP antibody detection in neuroimmune diseases, this article discusses GFAP antibodies in autoimmune GFAP-A, progress for detection of GFAP antibodies, diagnostic significance of GFAP antibodies in prototypical disease, as well as overlapping syndrome.