Infection prophylaxis and management of viral infection

Emily S. Clausen, Lorenzo Zaffiri

Abstract

Viral infections are associated with significant morbidity and mortality in lung transplant recipients. Importantly, several viral infections have been associated with the development of chronic lung allograft dysfunction (CLAD). Community-acquired respiratory viruses (CARV) such as influenza and respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), are frequently associated with acute and chronic rejection. Cytomegalovirus (CMV) remains a significant burden in regards to morbidity and mortality in lung transplant recipients. Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is mostly involved with the development of post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorder (PTLD), a lymphoid proliferation that occurs in the setting of immunosuppression. On the other hand, the development of direct acting antivirals for hepatitis C virus (HCV) is changing the use of HCV- positive organs in transplantation. In this article we will focus on reviewing common viral infections that have a significant impact on lung transplant recipients looking at epidemiology, prevention and potential treatment.