Programmed cell death protein 1/programmed death ligand-1 checkpoint blockade meets patient-derived organoids

Lejia Sun, Huayu Yang, Yilei Mao


Tumor immunotherapy, particularly programmed cell death protein 1 (PD-1)/programmed death ligand-1 (PD-L1) immune checkpoint blockade, has been instrumental in the successful treatment of cancer. Anti-PD-1/PD-L1 immunotherapy has been approved for many types of cancer (1,2); however, it is generally understood that only a fraction of cancer patients benefit from the therapy, which limits the application of immune checkpoint inhibitors (3). Predicting the therapeutic responses to immune checkpoint inhibitors is a focus of many studies.