A compendious summary of Parkinson’s disease patient-derived iPSCs in the first decade
The number of Parkinson’s disease (PD) patients increases with aging, which brings heavy burden to families and society. The emergence of patient-derived induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) has brought hope to the current situation of lacking new breakthroughs in diagnosis and treatment of PD. In this article, we reviewed and analyzed the current researches related to PD patient-derived iPSCs, in order to provide solid theoretical basis for future study of PD. In 2008, successful iPSCs derived from PD patients were reported. The current iPSCs research in PD mostly focused on the establishment of specific iPSCs models of PD patients carrying susceptible genes. The main source of PD patient-derived iPSCs is skin fibroblasts and the mainstream reprogramming methodology is the mature “four-factor” method, which introduces four totipotent correlation factors Oct4, Sox2, Klf4 and c-Myc into somatic cells. The main sources of iPSCs are patients with non-pedigrees and there have been no studies involving both PD patients and unaffected carriers within the same family. Most of the existing studies of PD patient-derived iPSCs started with the induction method for obtaining dopaminergic neurons in the first instance, but therapeutic applications are being increased. Although it is not the ultimate panacea, and there are still some unsolved problems (e.g., whether the mutated genes should be corrected or not), a better understanding of iPSCs may be a good gift for both PD patients and doctors due to their advantages in diagnosis and treatment of PD.