Clinical outcomes of ceftazidime-avibactam in lung transplant recipients with infections caused by extensively drug-resistant gram-negative bacilli

Wenhui Chen, Lingxiao Sun, Lijuan Guo, Bin Cao, Yingmei Liu, Li Zhao, Binghuai Lu, Binbin Li, Jingyu Chen, Chen Wang


Background: Infections produced by extensively drug-resistant (XDR) gram-negative bacilli (GNB) in solid organ transplant (SOT) are an important cause of morbidity and mortality. Ceftazidime/avibactam (CAZ-AVI) is a novel β-lactam/β-lactamase combination antibiotic with anti-GNB activity, but experience in real clinical practice with CAZ-AVI in lung transplant (LT) recipients is limited.
Methods: We conducted a retrospective study of patients with XDR-GNB infection who received at least 3 days of CAZ-AVI in the Department of Lung Transplantation Between December 2017 and December 2018 at China-Japan friendship hospital (CJFH). The general information, clinical manifestations, laboratory examinations, treatment course, and outcomes were summarized.
Results: A total of 10 patients who underwent LT at our center were included. They were all males with a mean age 51 years. Infections after LT included pneumonia and/or tracheobronchitis [n=9; 90% (9/10)], cholecystitis and blood stream infection (BSI) (n=1, patient 8). In these 10 LT recipients, the incidence of various airway complications was 70% (7/10). Carbapenem-resistant Klebsialla pneumoniae (CRKP) was the predominant pathogen, being detected in 9 patients. Multilocus sequence typing (MLST) analysis showed that all 9 CRKP isolates belonged to ST11. Six patients (6/10, 60%) started CAZ-AVI as salvage therapy after a first-line treatment with other antimicrobials. CAZ-AVI was administered as monotherapy or in combination regimens in 20% (2/10) and 80% (8/10) of patients respectively. There were no difference in temperature before and after CAZ-AVI treatment (P>0.05). White blood cell (WBC) at 7 days, and procalcitonin (PCT) at 7 days and 14 days significantly dropped (P<0.05). After 7–14 days of CAZ-AVI treatment, the PaO2/FiO2ratio (P/F ratio) significantly improved (P<0.05). Nine patients (9/10, 90%) obtained negative microbiologic culture of CRKP/CRPA, with a median time to was 6.7 days (range, 1–15 days). However, 5 patients (5/10, 50%) had relapse of CRKP/CRPA infections in the respiratory tract regardless of whether negative microbiologic culture was obtained or not. The 30-day survival rate was 100%, and the 90-day survival rate was 90% (1/10). No severe adverse events related to CAZ-AVI occurred.
Conclusions: CAZ-AVI treatment of CRKP/ CRPA infection in LT recipients was associated with high rates of clinical success, survival, and safety, but recurrent CRKP/CRPA infections in the respiratory tract did occur.