Renal double negative T cells: unconventional cells in search of a function

Raphael A. Nemenoff, Emily K. Kleczko, Katharina Hopp


In studying the role of adaptive immunity in disease, investigators have focused extensively on CD8+ T cells (effector T cells) and CD4+ T cells (helper T cells). For many years, double negative (DN) T cells (CD4− CD8−) have been neglected by immunologists due to their overall rarity and lack of clear expression markers, making them difficult to study.