The role of immunotherapy in the management of patients with renal cell carcinoma and brain metastases

Jaleh Fallah, Manmeet S. Ahluwalia


Patients with metastatic renal cell carcinoma (mRCC) who have metastases to the brain have poor prognosis and median overall survival (OS) of 6 to 10 months (1,2). Local treatments such as surgical resection, stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) and whole brain radiation therapy (WBRT) are the mainstay of treatment in these patients.