Article Abstract

The role of immunotherapy in the management of patients with renal cell carcinoma and brain metastases

Authors: Jaleh Fallah, Manmeet S. Ahluwalia


Patients with metastatic renal cell carcinoma (mRCC) who have metastases to the brain have poor prognosis and median overall survival (OS) of 6 to 10 months (1,2). Local treatments such as surgical resection, stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) and whole brain radiation therapy (WBRT) are the mainstay of treatment in these patients.