Prolyl hydroxylase domain inhibitors: a new era in the management of renal anemia
Prolyl hydroxylase domain (PHD) inhibitors are orally bioavailable small-molecule compounds that activate hypoxia inducible factor (HIF). HIF is a master transcription factor for regulating the cellular adaptive response to hypoxia. Erythropoietin (EPO), a hormone essential for red blood cell production, is one of the target genes of HIF. PHD inhibitors have been developed for the treatment of anemia with chronic kidney disease (CKD).