Effect of type 2 diabetes medications on fracture risk
Type 2 diabetes, one of the most frequent chronic diseases, has an important effect on bone metabolism, with most studies reporting an increased prevalence of fractures in these patients despite an apparently increased bone mineral density. Most probable explanation is an alteration of bone structure/quality with increased fragility but the different diabetes medications influence the risk of fracture. While metformin and incretin-based therapies are safe, thiazolidinediones and canagliflozin (sodium-glucose cotransporter-2 inhibitor) negatively impact bone metabolism and should be avoided in subjects at increased risk of fractures. Insulin and sulphonylureas are generally safe but can increase the risk of hypoglycemia and falls with subsequent traumatic fractures. Their combination should be avoided, especially in elderly subjects.