Biomarkers in pediatric acute respiratory distress syndrome
Pediatric acute respiratory distress syndrome (PARDS) is a heterogenous process resulting in a severe acute lung injury. A single indicator does not exist for PARDS diagnosis. Rather, current diagnosis requires a combination of clinical and physiologic variables. Similarly, there is little ability to predict the path of disease, identify those at high risk of poor outcomes or target therapies specific to the underlying pathophysiology. Biomarkers, a measured indicator of a pathologic state or response to intervention, have been studied in PARDS due to their potential in diagnosis, prognostication and measurement of therapeutic response. Additionally, PARDS biomarkers show great promise in furthering our understanding of specific subgroups or endotypes in this highly variable disease, and thereby predict which patients may benefit and which may be harmed by PARDS specific therapies. In this chapter, we review the what, when, why and how of biomarkers in PARDS and discuss future directions in this quickly changing landscape.