Portal pressure monitoring—state-of-the-art and future perspective
Portal hypertension is a serious symptom of chronic liver diseases, which can lead to many critical complications, such as the formation of varices related to upper digestive bleeding, ascites, infection, hepatic encephalopathy, renal failure, and even death. As a result, portal pressure monitoring has important prognostic and clinical implications. The hepatic venous pressure gradient measurement, a gold-standard method applied to monitor portal pressure, is invasive and only available in experienced centers. Over the past decade, noninvasive methods aimed at monitoring the portal pressure have been increasingly investigated, including serum markers, radiological features, ultrasound elastography, doppler and contrast-enhanced ultrasonography. In this study, we focused on both invasive and noninvasive methods for portal pressure monitoring and explored their roles in clinical setting. The advantages and limitations of various techniques for future research are also discussed.