Definition and global epidemiology of pediatric acute respiratory distress syndrome
Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) has been known to occur in children since early descriptions of the disease, but pediatric specific diagnostic criteria were first established in 2015 with the Pediatric Acute Lung Injury Consensus Conference (PALICC) definition of pediatric ARDS (PARDS). There were substantial changes proposed with the PALICC definition, including simplification of radiographic criteria, use of pulse oximetry based metrics to define PARDS, specific criteria for non-invasive ventilation, and the use of oxygenation index (OI) instead of PaO2/FiO2 ratio for those on invasive ventilation. While these changes could potentially result in major changes in the reported incidence and outcome of PARDS, review of the recent literature since publication of the PALICC definitions highlight that major elements regarding the contemporary epidemiology of PARDS have remained stable over the past 20 years. This highlights that the PARDS definition is likely catching up to changes in clinical practice, and suggests that this new definition should be used moving forward as it is more reflective of current practice than historical definitions. However, it is also clear that PARDS severity alone (as measured by the PALICC) criteria insufficiently characterizes the risk for mortality or other important clinical outcomes amongst PARDS patients, although there appears to be some association between PARDS severity and outcome, particularly when hypoxemia is severe.