Prevalence of hypertension, diabetes, and dyslipidemia, and their additive effects on myocardial infarction and stroke: a cross-sectional study in Nanjing, China

Shan Lu, Ming-Yang Bao, Shu-Mei Miao, Xin Zhang, Qing-Qing Jia, Shen-Qi Jing, Tao Shan, Xiao-Hong Wu, Yun Liu


Background: This study aimed to investigate the prevalence and risk factors for hypertension, diabetes, and dyslipidemia, and to evaluate their additive effects on myocardial infarction (MI) and stroke in Nanjing in East China.
Methods: A multistage, stratified random cluster sampling method was used to select representative participants. All eligible participants completed questionnaires, physical measurements, and blood tests. Multivariable and univariable logistic regression analyses were used to identify associated risk factors and evaluate additive effects on cardiovascular events, respectively.
Results: Hypertension was the most prevalent chronic disease among 11,036 participants enrolled (18.5%), followed by dyslipidemia (8.3%) and diabetes (6.0%). The prevalence of hypertension was higher in men than in women while no sex-related difference was observed in the prevalence of diabetes and dyslipidemia. Older age and higher body mass index were risk factors for all three diseases. Sex, central obesity, smoking, number of family members, salt intake, and family history of hypertension were associated with hypertension; central obesity, smoking, alcohol assumption, and family history of diabetes correlated with diabetes; and female sex, higher education, and alcohol assumption were risk factors for dyslipidemia. Hypertension complicated with dyslipidemia conferred more risk of MI and stroke than independent effects. Diabetes also contributed to risk based on hypertension or dyslipidemia.
Conclusions: The burden of hypertension and diabetes has stopped increasing. However, total cholesterol (TC) concentration in the population has not been well controlled. A more comprehensive approach to managing dyslipidemia, hypertension, and diabetes needs to be developed, especially for individuals with multiple cardiovascular risk factors.