Pertinent clinical outcomes in pediatric survivors of pediatric acute respiratory distress syndrome (PARDS): a narrative review
The objectives of this review are to describe the limitations of commonly used clinical outcomes [e.g., mortality, ventilation parameters, need for extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO), pediatric intensive care unit (PICU) and hospital length of stay (LOS)] in pediatric acute respiratory distress syndrome (PARDS) studies; and to explore other pertinent clinical outcomes that pediatric critical care practitioners should consider in future clinical practice and research studies. These include long-term pulmonary function, risk of pulmonary hypertension (PHT), nutrition status and growth, PICU-acquired weakness, neurological outcomes and neurocognitive development, functional status, health-related quality of life (HRQOL)], health-care costs, caregiver and family stress. PubMed was searched using the following keywords or medical subject headings (MESH): “acute lung injury (ALI)”, “acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS)”, “pediatric acute respiratory distress syndrome (PARDS)”, “acute hypoxemia respiratory failure”, “outcomes”, “pediatric intensive care unit (PICU)”, “lung function”, “pulmonary hypertension”, “growth”, “nutrition’, “steroid”, “PICU-acquired weakness”, “functional status scale”, “neurocognitive”, “psychology”, “health-care expenditure”, and “HRQOL”. The concept of contemporary measure outcomes was adapted from adult ARDS long-term outcome studies. Articles were initially searched from existing PARDS articles pool. If the relevant measure outcomes were not found, where appropriate, we considered studies from non-ARDS patients within the PICU in whom these outcomes were studied. Long-term outcomes in survivors of PARDS were not follow-up in majority of pediatric studies regardless of whether the new or old definitions of ARDS in children were used. Relevant studies were scarce, and the number of participants was small. As such, available studies were not able to provide conclusive answers to most of our clinical queries. There remains a paucity of data on contemporary clinical outcomes in PARDS studies. In addition to the current commonly used outcomes, clinical researchers and investigators should consider examining these contemporary outcome measures in PARDS studies in the future.