The renal resistive index as a new complementary tool to predict microvascular diabetic complications in children and adolescents: a groundbreaking finding
The increasing prevalence of type 1 diabetes mellitus (DM) has made it necessary to have new markers for early detection of diabetic nephropathy. Renal resistive index (RI) by using renal Doppler can be a helpful tool in detecting functional alterations in renal hemodynamics. This study was conducted on 100 children and adolescents with type 1 DM. They were further subdivided into two equal subgroups: group 1 with type 1 DM and normo-albuminuria [urinary albumin excretion (UAE) <30 mg/24 hours], and group 2 with type 1 DM and hyper-albuminuria (increased UAE >30 mg/24 hours). There were 37 males (37%) and 63 females (63%); their mean ages were 13.6±2.53 (range, 10–19) years and mean disease duration was 8.867±2.260 (range, 5–13) years. Progressive increase in RI was significantly associated with increased disease duration more than 10 years, elevated serum HbA1c more than 7.5% and early pubertal stages. While not significantly related to sex, weight, height, blood pressure or serum lipid profile, diabetic micro-vascular complications (nephropathy and sensory neuropathy) were more prevalent among patients with RI more than 0.58. Renal RI could be a useful complementary test for the evaluation of functional alterations in renal hemodynamics in the early stages of diabetic nephropathy.