An evaluation of biomaterials and osteobiologics for arthrodesis achievement in spine surgery

Joon S. Yoo, Junyoung Ahn, Dillon S. Patel, Nadia M. Hrynewycz, Thomas S. Brundage, Kern Singh


An increasing variety of orthobiologic materials, including autologous and allogeneic bone graft, bone marrow aspirate, demineralized bone matrix, ceramics, and growth factors are available to the spine surgeon. Although autologous bone graft remains the gold standard material, concerns for failure in achieving fusion have prompted evaluation of current and new biologic materials. As such, this review attempts to summarize the available biologic materials with their pertinent characteristics, advantages, disadvantages, and primary uses.