Post-operative surveillance in kidney cancer
Currently, there is no single accepted protocol for post-operative surveillance programs after an allegedly curative surgery for renal cell carcinoma (RCC). Guidelines often suggest a stage-based imaging protocol. For instance, the European Urological Association guidelines recommend for low-risk patients abdominal ultrasonography at 6 months postoperatively, then CT of the chest and abdomen after 1, 2 and 3 years and then every two years. For high-risk patients, CT of the chest and abdomen 6 months postoperatively and then after 1, 2, 3 years and then every two years (1).