Immune checkpoint inhibitors for esophageal cancer: are we moving in the right direction?

Alexander G. Raufi, Khaldoun Almhanna


Advanced, metastatic esophageal cancer is a disease traditionally treated with systemic chemotherapy, an approach that is largely palliative with limited durable benefit. Recently, several trials have demonstrated improved outcomes in this patient population using immune checkpoint inhibitors. Long and durable responses have been seen at least in a subset of patients, however, identifying patients who would benefit from immunotherapy has been challenging.