Management of hemoptysis in patients with lung cancer
Hemoptysis related to malignancy is common and accounts for nearly a quarter of all cases of hemoptysis in the US, and approximately 20% of patients with lung cancer will experience some degree of hemoptysis during their disease course. Both minor and massive hemoptysis come with diagnostic and treatment challenges and are associated with increased mortality. We will discuss the definition and epidemiology of hemoptysis related to malignancy, outline our approach to the initial evaluation and diagnostic workup, and extensively review the management of minor and massive hemoptysis. Specific emphasis will be on relevant signs and symptoms, imaging, and the role of bronchoscopy, and the differences in approach for minor hemoptysis compared to massive hemoptysis. While the role of surgical management is very limited in this patient population, the role of endobronchial and endovascular management will be discussed in detail.