Lack of evidence regarding bone metastases of genitourinary cancers: interventions by surgery, radiotherapy, and bone-targeted systemic therapy

Makito Miyake, Takuya Owari, Kiyohide Fujimoto


The bone is a major metastatic site of genitourinary (GU) cancer, especially in prostate cancer (PCa). Around 84–91% of patients with metastatic PCa harbor bone metastases (BMs), while the rates of BMs in patients with metastatic renal cell carcinoma (mRCC) and metastatic urothelial carcinoma of the bladder are reportedly 29% and 16–25%, respectively (1). Among mRCC cohorts, bone is the second most common metastatic site after the lungs (2,3).