Safety and efficacy of computed tomography-guided dye localization using patent blue V for single lung nodule for video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery: a retrospective study

Jing-Ru Chen, Yao-Hui Tseng, Mong-Wei Lin, Hsin-Ming Chen, Yi-Chang Chen, Mei-Chi Chen, Yee-Fan Lee, Jin-Shing Chen, Yeun-Chung Chang


Background: For invisible or impalpable lung nodules, video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery (VATS) has some limitations; some preoperative localization has been developed to overcome this limitation. This study aimed to assess the safety and efficacy of preoperative computed tomography (CT)-guided localization with patent blue V dye.
Methods: In this retrospective study, we examined patients with solitary pulmonary nodule undergoing preoperative CT-guided patent blue V dye localization from 2013 to 2015. We analyzed patients’ demographic data, nodular features, and procedures undergone.
Results: We enrolled 282 patients (282 lung nodules; mean age: 56.6±11.6 years, with female preponderance) in this study. The mean size of nodules was 0.9±0.5 cm, and mean time of localization was 24 min. The leading complications after localization were asymptomatic pneumothorax (48 patients, 17%) and localized pulmonary hemorrhage (51 patients, 18%). Other rare complications included subcutaneous emphysema and hematoma. We noted two cases with intraoperative poor or fail dye localization. Most patients underwent wedge resection (221 patients, 78.4%) and segmentectomy (36 patients, 12.8%), whereas 25 patients underwent lobectomy (8.9%) after the intraoperative frozen histopathological study confirmed malignancy. Furthermore, postoperative hospital stay was 4.8±2.0 days. Few patients experienced postoperative complications such as empyema (n=1), air leakage (n=3), and chylothorax (n=1).
Conclusions: This study establishes that CT-guided dye localization is a safe and efficient method with rare severe complications and high success rate.