Ultrasound for intraoperative localization of lung nodules during thoracoscopic surgery

Yu-Han Huang, Ke-Cheng Chen, Jin-Shing Chen


In low-dose CT screening era, an ideal preoperative localization method is essential for resection of small and deep-seated pulmonary nodules by video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery (VATS). This article focuses on intraoperative ultrasonography localization method during thoracoscopy. Performing ultrasonography intraoperatively is a real-time and alternative approach to localize small, non-visible and non-palpable pulmonary lesions without injury to lung parenchyma. Its widespread usage has been limited due to the air in the lung parenchyma; however, its application can be useful in some conditions with guidance to find the lesion.