Article Abstract

“The multimodal approach for ventilator-associated pneumonia prevention”—requirements for nationwide implementation

Authors: Francisco Álvarez-Lerma, M. Sánchez García, Task Force of Experts for Project “Zero


The multimodal approach for ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) prevention has been shown to be a successful strategy in reducing VAP rates in many intensive care units (ICU) in some countries. The simultaneous application of several measures or “bundles” to reduce VAP rates has achieved a higher impact than the progressive implementation of the individual interventions. The ultimate objective of recommendation bundles is their integration in the culture of routine healthcare of the staff in charge of ventilated patients for accomplished rates to persist over time. The noteworthy elements of this new strategy include the selection of the individual recommendations of the bundle, education of care workers (HCW) in the culture of patient safety, audit of compliance with the recommendations, commitment of the hospital management to support implementation, nomination and empowerment of local leaders of the projects in ICUs, both physicians and nurses, and the continuous collection of VAP episodes. The implementation of this new strategy is not an easy task, as both its inherent strength and important barriers to its application have become evident, which need to be overcome for maximal reduction of VAP rates.