Limitations and complications of minimally invasive spinal surgery in adult deformity
Minimally invasive spine (MIS) surgery has rapidly progressed from simple short segment fusions to large adult deformity corrections, with radiographic and clinical outcomes as good as those of open surgery. Anterior longitudinal ligament release (ALLR) and anterior column realignment (ACR) have been key advancements in the ability to correct deformity using MIS techniques. However, patient selection and appropriate preoperative workup is critical to obtain good outcomes and for complication avoidance. Despite favorable outcomes in spinal deformity surgery, MIS techniques are limited in (I) pronounced cervical or thoracic deformity; (II) patients with prior fusion mass; and (III) severe sagittal imbalance necessitating Schwab 5 osteotomy or higher. Guidelines for proper patient selection are needed to guide MIS spine surgeons in choosing the right candidate.