Implementation of immunotherapy in the treatment of advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC)
Mechanisms of tumor immune surveillance and immune escape have been recently elucidated and led to the development of a new therapeutic field in oncology, that of immunotherapy. Immunotherapy aims to reactivate the immune system against cancer. Neoplasias like non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) are of particular interest and clinical studies with immunotherapeutic agents have shown significant survival benefit. Several agents have gained corresponding regulatory approvals. In particular, nivolumab, pembrolizumab and atezolizumab have been approved for second-line treatment of NSCLC, pembrolizumab is the only immune checkpoint inhibitor that has been approved in the first-line treatment and durvalumab is approved in the locally advanced disease. In this review, we aim to present the implementation of immunotherapy in the treatment of advanced NSCLC. We will discuss not only the approved regimens but also the future perspectives, the serious adverse events such as hyperprogression and the possible predictive markers that will aid the selection of the patients that will benefit from immunotherapy.