Trends in total ankle arthroplasty and revisions in the Medicare database
Background: High failure rates and unacceptable patient outcomes have kept total ankle arthroplasty (TAA) from becoming a favorable treatment option. Modern prosthetic designs and techniques have improved outcomes and decreased revision rates. Current literature has not adequately investigated the recent trends in TAA utilization and revision rate. The purpose of this study was to determine the trends in TAA utilization and the rate of revision TAA by analyzing a comprehensive Medicare database for procedures performed between 2005 and 2012. Methods: A retrospective review of a comprehensive Medicare database within the PearlDiver Supercomputer application (Warsaw, IN) of the index procedures TAA and revision TAA was conducted. Patients who underwent TAA and revision TAA were identified by Current Procedural Terminology (CPT)-27702, 27703, and International Classification of Disease ninth revision (ICD) codes 81.56, 81.59 respectively. The primary outcomes of this study were annual revision incidence and TAA annual utilization. Demographic data such as age, gender, and geographical location of patients were also examined. Results: Within our study period of 2005–2012 there was a reported total of 7,181 TAAs and 1,431 revision TAAs which is a revision incidence of 19.928% amongst the Medicare population. The compound annual growth rate (CAGR) was 16.37% for TAA, 7.74% for revision TAA, and a mean 7.41% annual revision incidence. Amongst females there were 3,568 TAA and 731 revision TAA compared with 3,336 TAA and 613 revision TAA amongst males. The greatest amount of TAA and revision TAA were found in the 65–69 age group followed by the 70–74 age group. Regionally, the highest number of TAA and revision TAA were found in the South and the lowest in the Northeast. Conclusions: Our analysis of the Medicare database shows that there is a high rate of annual growth in TAA utilization (16.37%) and revision TAA (7.74%) indicating that there is an increased demand for TAA in the Unites States. However, failed TAA can have serious consequence and revision TAA remains to have suboptimal results. This study highlights the recent trends in ankle arthroplasty and serves to increase awareness of this increasingly popular procedure.