The emerging treatment landscape of advanced non-small cell lung cancer
Lung cancer remains the leading cause of cancer related death worldwide. Despite broad advances in diagnostics and therapy, the five-year overall survival for patients with advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) has not significantly changed over the past few years. Following the decoding of human cancer genome and the advent of therapies targeting driver mutations, the selection of systemic therapy changed from “one size fits all” approach to a more precise selection of biologic therapies targeting distinct genetic profiles. Molecular alterations can be targeted by specific drugs that are administered orally, have higher response rates and a better toxicity profile compared to standard chemotherapy. More recently, better understanding of the interactions between tumor cells and the immune system has led to the development of new therapeutic strategies that enhance the body’s own immune response towards antitumor immunity. Robust data on these new drugs have been generated not only in the second-line setting, but also as first line therapy and in combination with standard therapies. In this review, we aim to illustrate a comprehensive up-to-date within the newest advances in the field of NSCLC, with the view to educate new practitioners and stimulate new thoughts for clinical trials.