Access site complications in transcutaneous aortic valve replacement: frequency, outcomes, prevention, and treatment
Aortic stenosis (AS) is a common cause of valvular heart disease with heavy disease burden in elderly patients. It is present in almost 7% of patients older than 65. The mortality rate increases significantly once it becomes symptomatic with average life expectancy of around 1-year. Symptoms include angina, syncope, or heart failure. This requires either surgical or transcutaneous replacement. Transcutaneous aortic valve replacement (TAVR) use has increased in recent years from high risk patients to now even including intermediate risk patients. With the increased number of procedures performed, one of the consequences is access site complications. These complications can lead to increased hospitalization, cost, infections, and eventually worse outcomes. In this manuscript, we provide a comprehensive review discussing the consequences, outcomes, frequency, predictors and some possible solutions to these complications set forth in these studies.