Article Abstract

Surrogate end points in early prostate cancer clinical states: ready for implementation?

Authors: Christos E. Kyriakopoulos, Emmanuel S. Antonarakis


The prostate cancer disease continuum is best conceptualized as a series of clinical states starting from localized disease (which is curable, in some) and often progressing to biochemically-recurrent disease, to non-metastatic or metastatic castration-resistant disease, and finally to lethal prostate cancer (1). Accordingly, a major decrease in the recurrence rate or death from prostate cancer after primary definitive therapy could potentially be achieved with more effective adjuvant therapies. For patients with localized prostate cancer, treatment options for definite therapy include surgery or radiation, with approximately one-third of these men experiencing disease recurrence (2).