Ground glass opacities management in the lung cancer screening era
Pulmonary ground glass opacity (GGO) is becoming an important clinical dilemma in oncology as its diagnosis in clinical practice is increasing due to the introduction of low dose computed tomography (CT) scan and screening. The incidence of cancer in GGO has been reported as high as 63%. The purpose of this manuscript is to review best available evidence papers on management of GGO in lung cancer to address the following questions: (I) how to correlate CT findings with malignancy; (II) when and who operate? (III) how to perform intraoperative detection of intrapulmonary GGO? (IV) wedge, segmentectomy or lobectomy? Taking a cue from a clinical scenario, a review on PubMed was conducted. The words search included: “Lung ground glass opacity”. The research was limited to human and adults. We considered all published articles from 1990 to April 2017, which reported on at least sufficient data, to be eligible. The literature search was limited to articles in English. A total of 1,211 articles have been found. Interestingly, while in 1991, only one paper was published on low-dose high-resolution CT, in 2016, 126 papers have been published. Most cited and recent papers have been chosen for discussion. Many recent papers have been published from Asian groups. It is clearly not possible to conclude from these data what is the best strategy for GGO in the lung cancer screening era. Certainly, when there is uncertainty, personal opinion and experience should not influence decision making, on the contrary decision should be taken by a multidisciplinary team.