Cardiotoxicity of cancer chemotherapy: identification, prevention and treatment
Cardiotoxicity is an important complication of several cancer therapeutic agents. Several well established and newer anticancer therapies such as anthracyclines, trastuzumab and other HER2 receptor blockers, antimetabolites, alkylating agents, tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs), angiogenesis inhibitors, and checkpoint inhibitors are associated with significant cardiotoxicity. Cardiovascular imaging employing radionuclide imaging, echocardiography and magnetic resonance imaging are helpful in early detection and prevention of overt heart failure secondary to cardiotoxicity of cancer therapy. An understanding of the mechanism of the cardiotoxicity of cancer therapies can help prevent and treat their adverse cardiovascular consequences. Clinical implementation of algorithms based upon cardiac imaging and several non-imaging biomarkers can prevent cardiac morbidity and mortality associated with the use of cardiotoxic cancer therapies.