An immunoregulatory role of dendritic cell-derived exosomes versus HIV-1 infection: take it easy but be warned
Dendritic cells (DCs) are professional antigen-presenting cells capable to initiate and then drive T cell responses. Naturally, DCs sense various pathogens and their products in order to present those to immune cells and in turn initiate immune reaction. In a case of wounding, DCs recognize products released by damaged cells and then contribute to the induction of inflammation associated with further clearance of necrotic and apoptotic cells (1). In addition to DC subtypes that initiate inflammatory reaction, there are DC subsets, which exert tolerogenic properties directed to dampen extensive inflammation and promote switching to wound healing (2).