MET in human cancer: germline and somatic mutations
Since the initial discovery of missense MET mutations in hereditary papillary renal carcinoma (HPRC), activating MET mutations have been identified in a diverse range of human cancers. MET mutations have been identified in several functional domains including the kinase, juxtamembrane, and Sema domains. Studies of these mutations have been invaluable for our understanding of the tumor initiating activity of MET, receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK) recycling and regulation, and mechanisms of resistance to kinase inhibition. These studies also demonstrate that mutationally activated MET plays a significant role in a wide range of cancers and RTKs can promote tumor progression through diverse mechanisms. This review will cover the various MET mutations that have been identified, their mechanism of action, and the significant role that mutationally-activated MET plays in tumor initiation, progression, and therapeutic resistance.