Laparoscopic and endoscopic cooperative surgery for gastrointestinal tumor
With technological progress of endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD) in the last decade, several laparoscopic and endoscopic cooperative surgeries (LECS) for gastrointestinal tumor have recently been developed. LECS is definitely favorable to the minimization of surgical margin, which leads to functional and anatomical preservation of gastrointestinal tract. LECS for gastrointestinal tumor is mainly sorted by two categories: exposure procedures and non-exposure procedures between endoluminal and extraluminal spaces. Exposure procedures have the potential risk of gastric contents or tumor cells spilling out over the abdominal cavity, because the stomach wall has to be perforated intentionally during the procedure. In order to avoid the potential these risks, non-exposure procedures have been developed. Currently, the LECS concept has rapidly permeated for treatment of gastrointestinal tumor due to its certainty and safety, although there is still room for improvement to lessen its technical difficulty. This review describes the current LECS for gastrointestinal tumor based on the several articles.