MicroRNA-499-5p: a therapeutic target in the context of cardiovascular disease

Menno Hoekstra


Cardiovascular disease remains a major cause of death worldwide. Atherosclerosis, narrowing of the arteries due to the accumulation of cholesterol in macrophages within the sub-endothelial space of the vessel wall, is the primary underlying cause of cardiovascular disease. Hypercholesterolemia is therefore an established risk factor for the development of atherosclerotic lesions and cardiovascular disease (1,2). Other major cardiovascular risk factors include smoking, high blood pressure, and the presence of type II diabetes (1,2). Unfortunately, it is still difficult to reliably predict the risk for the development of cardiovascular disease and the associated mortality in individual subjects. A clear need therefore exists for the discovery of sensitive cardiovascular disease biomarkers.