Article Abstract

Azoramide: a new drug for the treatment of type 2 diabetes?

Authors: Carlos Guillen

Abstract

Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (T2DM) is a worldwide disease and according to estimations made by World Health Organization (WHO) by the year 2030, it will be the 7th cause of death in the world (1). During the progression to T2DM, in pre diabetic stage, there is a massive expansion of pancreatic beta cells to compensate insulin resistance and cope with the increased demand of insulin. Concomitantly, these cells present an overwhelmed endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and ER stress (2). The unfolded protein response (UPR) is an adaptive mechanism to counteract the increased protein synthesis and the folding capacity of the ER, alleviating the ER stress. The UPR consists of three sensors proteins; inositol requiring 1 (IRE1-alpha), PKR-like ER kinase (PERK) and activating transcription factor 6 (ATF6). They are inserted in the ER membrane and ensure the protein folding capacity of the ER, avoiding the accumulation of unfolded proteins inside this organelle (3).

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